Uninstalling/disabling the Realtek driver was the solution that finally solved the problem.Now, my Windows update wants to install a Realtek driver which I don't want.
Since this didn't work for me either I found another solution. (At least on Windows 10 Pro) you can use the Group Policy Editor to "prevent installation of devices that match [a list of IDs defined by you]".
So you can enter the ID of the Device which causes problems and Windows won't be able to install ANY driver for this device (so make sure to have the right driver installed before enabling this, you won't be able to make changes either).
Since it is available in Enterprise versions of Windows 10 the ability to control this setting using Group Policy should be an option as well.
Of course, if you opt to turn off automatic driver updates for your hardware that means you must manually find those updated drivers yourself from the manufacturer.
If you are an Insider, I would make sure that you click/check `Never install driver software from Windows Update' as soon as you upgrade or install a new build, then reboot and hopefully it should stick. When I last tested this, Windows Update completely ignored my "No" "Never" settings, and installed NVIDIA drivers.